Monday, April 23, 2018

The economics of their waste


Tennis Culture.

Tennis has much accessible equipment. The 2 main types of equipment in tennis are rackets and tennis balls. A tennis racket has a handle and a grip connected to a neck. All of these things are held up with a matrix of tightly pulled strings. Modern rackets have existed for over 100 years. Some are made up of wood. Laminated wood construction has given more strength to rackets. Other rackets are made up of metal and carbon graphite, ceramics, other light metals like titanium. These materials give rackets more power. The frame of them can be about 29 inches. Rackets are constructed by companies like Wilson, Head, and Babolat. Tennis balls are made up of originally of cloth strips stitched together with thread and stuffed with feathers. Some were white. Today, most are yellow by the latter part of the 20th century to the present. It was used for increased visibility. The International Tennis Federation or the ITF do make tennis balls to confirm to specific criteria for size, weight, deformation and bounce. The ITF defines the official diameter of tennis balls in the following terms: the official diameter as 65.41–68.58 mm (2.575–2.700 in). Balls must weigh between 56.0 and 59.4 g (1.98 and 2.10 oz.). Tennis balls are traditionally manufactured in America and Europe. More manufacturing takes place in Asia. There are materials in the region that people desire to make tennis balls. Advanced players use other accouterments to improve their performance. One is about vibration dampeners may be interlaced in the proximal part of the string array for improved feel. Racket handles may be customized with absorbent or rubber-like materials to improve the players' grip. Players often use sweat bands on their wrists to keep their hands dry and head bands or bandannas to keep the sweat out of their eyes as well. Finally, although the game can be played in a variety of shoes, specialized tennis shoes have wide, flat soles for stability and a built-up front structure to avoid excess wear.

The game of tennis is played by players whether they consist of 2 or 4 people. There is an officiating head judge or umpire who sits in a raised chair to one side of the court. The umpire makes determinations on points with help from judges if necessary. There is also a net judge that determines whether the ball has touched the net during service. The umpire has the right to overrule a line judge or a net judge. If the umpire is sure that a clear mistake has been made is when an umpire can do this. In some tournaments, line judges who would be calling the serve were assisted by electronic sensors that beeped to indicate the serve was out. This system was called "Cyclops.” Cyclops has since largely been replaced by the Hawk-Eye system. In professional tournaments using this system, players are allowed three unsuccessful appeals per set, plus one additional appeal in the tie-break to challenge close line calls by means of an electronic review. The US Open, Miami Masters, US Open Series, and World Team Tennis started using this challenge system in 2006 and the Australian Open and Wimbledon introduced the system in 2007. In clay-court matches, such as at the French Open, a call may be questioned by reference to the mark left by the ball's impact on the court surface. Final decisions in a tennis game are determined by the referee. He or she is usually located off the court. The referee can overrule the umpire’s decision if rules were violated. Many children can retrieve tennis balls. Junior tennis rules are for those under 18 years old.

Tennis is played on a rectangular court by either 2 players or four players (called doubles). Players stand on the opposite sides of a net and use a stringed racket to hit a ball back and forth to each other. Each player has a maximum of one bounce after it has been hit by their opponent to return the ball over the net and within the boundaries of the court. Once a players fails to do any of these actions, his or her opponent wins a point. The aim in any tennis game is to win enough points to win a game and enough games to win a set and enough sets to win a match. The first person to win six games wins a set. Matches are usually the best of three or the best of five sets. Sometimes, a coin toss determines which player serves first. If the ball hits the net and falls within the service court, this is called a “net serve”, the server will be entitled to re-serve the ball into the service court. For example, if a “net serve” is made on the server’s first serve, the server will be entitled to re-serve his first serve. There are no limits to the number of “net serves” a player can commit. In dealing with points, no points are scored is called Love. 1 point scored is 15 points. 2 points scored is 30 points, 3 points scored is 40 points, and 4 points earned is set point (or set over). A tennis player must win at least a two point lead to win a game. If the score is tied at 40 to 40 (what is called as a “Deuce”), a player must earn two consecutive points (an “Advantage” point and “Point”) to win the game. If the player who has an “Advantage” point loses the next point, the score will be “Deuce” once again. Tennis is played on a rectangular, flat surface. The court is 78 feet (23.77 m) long, and 27 feet (8.2 m) wide for singles matches and 36 ft. (11 m) for doubles matches. One set is a sequence of games played with service alternating between games. A break point occurs if the receiver, not the server, has a chance to win the game with the next point.

The modern age of tennis is dominated by international organizations, technology, Internet, and other funding by various entities. Video games readily show tennis as well. There are games like Mario Tennis, the TopSpin series, Wii Sports, and Grand Slam Tennis. Tournaments are readily organized by sex like there are men’s singles, women’s singles, and doubles. They can be divided by age groups and there are senior players too. Those with disabilities are in tennis with tournaments for those in wheelchair tennis and deaf tennis. The four Grand Slam tournaments are found in the Australian Open (January-February), the French Open (May-June), Wimbledon (June-July), and the U.S. Open (August-September). They are the most famous events involving professional tennis. Roger Federer and Rafael Nadal are great tennis players. Serena Williams, Venus Williams, and other women tennis players have increased the popularity of tennis globally. Many tennis stars are millionaires, but many women have economic inequality. The Venus sisters have rightfully talked about these issues and publicly promote pay equality involving any tennis player regardless of sex. Many players travel the world to play in many tournaments and they get to witness the diverse cultures of the world. One very important message about this age is that regardless of what year that we live in, the game of tennis should always motivate excellence, great character, and happiness in the lives of humanity.

Yesterday was Earth Day. It was created during the early 1970's (in 1970), but its roots existed long before that time. Back in the day (during the 1960's and before like the 1969 oil spill in Santa Barbara, California that killed over 10,000 seabirds, dolphins, seals, and sea lions), many events of smog (like the November 24, 1966 smog disaster in NYC killing at least 169 people), other forms of air pollution, water oil spills, and DDT poisoning were all over America. Scholars like Rachel Carson and others wanted Americans to have more awareness about environmental issues. Ironically, the Great Society from LBJ has shown a large amount of pro-environmental laws that helped people including animals to this very day. For example, LBJ signed more than 300 conservation laws during his time of office. The Water Quality Act of 1965 improved our water supplies. The Air Quality Acts of 1966 and 1967 improved our air. Today, we have climate change and other important environmental issues. That is why Earth Day is important. It is about improving our world, so our future generations can live in a better environment. Rallies exist globally on this day to advocate stridently for environmental protection. People are readily doing great work too in our time. Some have used efforts to clean up parks and other locations. In real life, I have participated in those efforts to clean up areas around my location. Others have used science to discover new ways to solve flooding issues. Some people have courageously stood up against corporate pollution and environmental oppression. It is about a day where social activism can advance more recycling, more improvements of habitats, fights against animal extinction, and the realization that when we care for the Earth, the Earth in term will bless us. Therefore, we are committed to environmental justice 100 percent.

By Timothy

Friday, April 20, 2018

More Tennis History

By 1921, Dwight Davis or the donor of the Davis Cup was the umpire at the ATA national semifinals. In that same year, the first black owned and operated country club existed in America. It was founded by the Progressive Realty Group. These were a group of African American businessmen. They purchased and opened the Shady Rest Golf and Tennis Club at Scotch Plains, New Jersey. The Springfield, Massachusetts Tennis Club and the New Jersey Tennis Association was formed in 1922. By 1925, the New England Tennis Association and St. Louis Tennis Association were formed. Reginald Weir and Gerald Norman Jr. were denied entry into the U.S. Law Tennis Association (USLTA) Junior Indoor Championship because of their race, even after paying the entry free. The NAACP supported them in 1929 which resulted in a formal grievance after Norman’s father filed a complaint. The University of Illinois tennis player Douglas Turner is the runner up in the Big Ten championships in 1929 too. In 1930, the Colored Intercollegiate Athletic Association (CIAA) and the Southern Intercollegiate Athletic Association (SIAA) received the Williams Trophy after it was donated by members of the Grand Central Station staff. Jimmie McDaniels played in the New York State Negro Tennis Championships in 1940. By 1941, on the anniversary of the ATA’s Silver Jubilee, USLTA president Holcombe Ward extended his warmest regards to the organization without allowing a single person of color to participate in his league. In the letter, he stated, “I extend most cordial greetings and sincere wishes for the success of the American Tennis Association in its further development, work and efforts to maintain the high standards of the game of tennis wherever played.” In 1950, Althea Gibson became the first African American to participate in the U.S. Nationals. In the first round, she defeated Barbara Knapp, but would then fall to Louise Brough in the second round, 1-6, 6-3, 7-9. Before a thunderstorm descended on the court, Gibson was actually beating Brough. When the players came back the next day, Gibson lost three straight games and the match. Victor Miller and Roosevelt Megginson were the first African Americans to play in the USLTA Interscholastic Championships. Lorraine Williams won the USLTA National Girls’ 15 Singles to become the first African American to win a USLTA national championship in 1953. By 1956, Althea Gibson won the French Championship women’s singles tournament. She was the first African American to win a Grand Slam title. She left the French Championship with the women’s doubles title. Gibson’s victories and success continued into the women’s doubles final at Wimbledon too. She left London victorious too.

In 1957, Althea Gibson was the first black woman to win a major U.S. tennis championship. She defeated Darlene Hard in straight sets, 6-2, 6-3, to capture the U.S. Clay Court singles title in River Forest, Illinois. The match was only about 47 minutes. Later on in that year, Gibson won the U.S. National Championships (now known as the U.S. Open) becoming the first African American to do so. Gibson was also the first African American to play in the Australian Open championship. She lost to Shirley Fry in straight sets. This was the only Grand Slam championship she would not win in singles. However, Gibson would win the Australian Open women’s doubles championship in 1957. Gibson lost the U.S. National Championships women’s doubles championship. That was the only doubles Grand Slam title she didn’t win. She won the mixed doubles championship. For her wins in the French Open, Wimbledon and the U.S. National Championships, Althea Gibson was named the Associated Press Woman Athlete of the Year. In 1958, Althea Gibson repeated as both U.S. National and Wimbledon champion. For a third consecutive year, Gibson won the women’s doubles title match at Wimbledon. She repeated as the AP Woman Athlete of the Year. It was during this year that she also announced her retirement from amateur tennis.

By 1959, Bob Ryland broke the color barrier for black men as participating in Jack Marsh’s World Pro Championship in Cleveland. He was the first African American man tennis professional. Arthur Ashe Jr. won the National Indoor Junior Tennis Championship in 1960. Next year in 1961, he repeated as the National Indoor Junior Tennis champion and he also won the USTA Interscholastic Singles Championship. Arthur Ashe was the first African American in the Davis Cup by 1963. He won the U.S. Hard Court Championships. Lenward Simpson was the youngest male to play at the U.S. Nationals at Forest Hills, New York at 15 years old. Arthur Ashe comes into UCLA by 1965. He won the NCAA singles championship and doubles championship with Ian Crookenden. Arthur Ashe Jr. took home the U.S. Clay Court Championship and the U.S. Indoor Doubles with teammate Charlie Pasarell in 1967. By 1968, Arthur Ashe Jr. was the first and only black man to win the U.S. Open. It was the first Open in the Open era. He defeated Davis Cup teammate Bob Lutz to win the U.S. Amateur Championship. To this day, he is the only player to win the amateur and national championships in the same year.

In 1970, Arthur Ashe Jr. became the first and only black man to win the Australian Open. Juan Farrow won the U.S. Boys’ 12 Singles Championship and also won the doubles title with the teammate Lawrence Hooper. In 1971, Arthur Ashe Jr. teamed up with Marty Riessen to win the French Open men’s doubles title. In that year, Althea Gibson is elected to the International Tennis Hall of Fame. Juan Farrow in 1972 won his second championship in the U.S. Boys’ 14 Singles. Diane Morrison in the same year won the National Public Parks Girls 16U Singles Championship. In 1973, Juan Farrow won the National Boys Indoor 16 Singles Championship. Lenward Simpson in 1974 signed with the Detroit Loves and was in the process of the first black player in World Team Tennis. Arthur Ashe Jr. won the Wimbledon men’s singles title by defeating Jimmy Connors in 1975. He was the first and only black man to win the event.  Bruce Foxworth and Roger Guedes won the NCAA Division II doubles. They were from Hampton University. Hampton was the first historically black college or university to win the Division II title. Andrea Whitmore in 1978 won the National Parks singles, doubles, and mixed doubles titles. She was the first African American to win a championship and the second only woman to win three major events in the tournament’s 52 year history. In that same year, the Girls 14 Indoor Doubles was won by Kathy Foxworth and Lori Kosten. In 1980, Leslie Allen was the first African American woman to play in the main draw of a professional tournament in Open era history. In the same year, the U.S. Girls 16 Hard Court Doubles, U.S. Girls 18 Indoor Doubles, and the U.S. Girls 18 Clay Court Doubles are won by Houston duo Zina Garrison and Lori McNeil. Leslie Allen won the Avon Championships of Detroit in 1981. She was the first black woman since Althea Gibson to win a major title. Yannick Noah in 1983 became the first black man to win the French Open when he defeated defending champion Mats Wilander, 6-2, 7-5, 7-6. He was 23 years old back then. He was the first Frenchman to win the French Open singles championship since 1946. He was the last Frenchman to win that event. That victory was his first and last Grand Slam singles title. In 1984, many events come about. Camille Benjamin made it to the French Open semifinals. Lloyd Bourne (who was a tow time All-American at Stanford) reached the round of 16 at the Australian Open. Todd Nelson made it to the round of 32 of the U.S. Open. Pepperdine University’s Jerome Jones and Kelly Jones (no relation) won the NCAA’s doubles championship.

Lori McNeil and Zina Garrison faced off in the Eckerd Tennis Open, which is the first time two black players meet in a major professional tennis championship in 1986. McNeil defeated Garrison, 2-6, 7-5, 6-2. Northwestern University’s Katrina Adams was the first African American woman to win a NCAA doubles title in 1987. She teamed up with Diane Donnelly to beat Stanford’s Patty Fendick and Stephanie Savides, 6-2, 6-4. In 1988, Zina Garrison and Pam Shriver won the Olympic gold medal for women’s doubles in Seoul, South Korea. Garrison also took home bronze in the women’s singles tournament. U.S. national team named MaliVai Washington to its team. By 1990, Zina Garrison defeated Monica Seles, ending her 36-match winning streak, and then stuns Steffi Graf in the Wimbledon semifinals to advance to her first Grand Slam championship. Garrison would go on to lose to Martina Navratilova in the title bout, but by playing in the championship, Garrison becomes the first black woman to reach a Grand Slam final since Althea Gibson in 1958. Mashona Washington won the USTA National Indoor 18 Singles by 1992. MaliVai Washington reached the Wimbledon singles final in 1996. He falls to the Dutchman Richard Krajicek in straight sets. Washington was the first black man to reach the title game since Arthur Ashe Jr. During the year of 1996 also, he is named to the U.S. Olympic tennis team. He was the first African American to receive that honor. Chanda Rubin and partner Arantxa Sanchez-Vicario win the Australian Open doubles title in 1996, and Rubin fights her way to the semifinals of the Australian Open, where she loses to eventual champion Monica Seles in three sets.

By Timothy